Monday, 11 May 2020

Coronavirus update: From an unknown unknown to a known unknown

On March 17th, I blogged some thoughts on the coronavirus outbreak; its significance; and how I was seeing the outlook. While we are still far from the end of this crisis, at this stage events appear to be playing out largely in line with the analysis and predictions outlined in that article, so I haven't felt much need to pen an update. My views were generally considered wildly optimistic at the time, but recent events suggest it was more a case of investor sentiment being unreasonably bearish than my views being unreasonably optimistic.

I've also been very busy analysing stocks and taking advantage of the market volatility (you don't get given buying opportunities of this caliber very often - somewhere between once a decade and once in a generation - so you absolutely have to make the most of them), so I have been allocating less time to writing/blogging. Given the pervasive impact of covid-19 on economies and markets at the moment, blogging about any other topic has also seemed somewhat superfluous.

Nevertheless, I thought I would add a few thoughts in this post. For me, one of the most predictable and amusing things we have seen since markets bottomed on 23 March has been the widespread dismay, confusion, consternation, and even anger expressed by many market commentators and investors about why markets are rallying in seeming defiance of the fundamentals, and 'decoupling from the economy'. Don't investors understand what's happening out there in the real economy? Haven't they seen the payroll numbers? Don't they know earnings are going to drop a lot? Etc etc.

This reaction demonstrates just how little investors seem to understand about how markets actually work - both on the way down and on the way up. I'm not using hindsight bias here - in mid March I publicly said I thought markets were bottoming on both Twitter and this blog, and on March 25, two days into the recovery, I Tweeted "[t]his is about the time in the recovery where you'll hear a lot of people coming out and saying bear market rallies are common, and we will surely go back down and retest the lows, as effects of shutdown will continue for months etc... No such guarantees I'm afraid. Lows are likely in". I'm aware that calling markets is generally a fool's errand, but I also believe that markets are not equally unpredictable at all times. This was a unique situation, and there was ample evidence sentiment had reached bearish extremes, and that investors had likely significantly overreacted. It was not that hard to predict that markets - for both technical and fundamental reasons - would likely revert to a far more rational assessment of the outlook in due course.

Fully unpacking the various issues at play here is difficult because it requires what I call '3D thinking', which does not lend itself to simple narrative exposition. This is because understanding why A leads to B requires you understand C, but understanding C requires that you already understand how A leads to B, etc. This article was written and re-written, and in the end I gave up and decided to just focus on a few pieces of the puzzle (sorry!).

What I want to focus on in this article is the important and underestimated role 'unknown unknowns' play in market turmoil, and the widely overestimated importance of 'known unknowns'. I also critique the idea markets are 'ignoring the fundamentals' - they are not; they are just paying attention to different fundamentals than many people think they should be, but the same fundamentals the market always pays attention to during recoveries (and correctly so). Finally, I address some of the perils of 'reasoning by analogy' rather than from first principles - something I've blogged about in the past.


Known unknowns vs. unknown unknowns: the real reason markets crash (and don't)

In every major market sell-off in history - and every major buying opportunity - there has always been a pervasive sense that 'life as we know it has changed'. When the downturn is viewed from a comfortable historical distance and with the benefit of hindsight, people invariably look back and say, 'gosh investors were so silly to sell stocks down to those levels; if it was me, I would have been smart and rational enough to know it was a great buying opportunity, and bought when others were selling'.

However, prospectively and in real time, when every new crisis comes along, people invariably react by saying 'yes but this time really is different - we haven't seen anything like this before; this is truly unprecedented'. However, what is overlooked is that every major crisis/sell-off in the past has felt (and been) that way to the investors experiencing them at the time, which is precisely why the sell-offs were so violent in the first place. A sense of disorientation emanating from a lack of historical precedent/easy past analogies to draw on is exactly what creates the pervasive sense of fear necessary to occasion a major crash.

The hindsight observer has the benefit of knowing how things subsequently played out with respect to that specific case/downturn/sell-off, which creates a known precedent which can inform their future judgments, should similar circumstances recur in the future. When they look back on past crises, they therefore have a playbook for how crises of that particular nature work, and are then able to fool themselves into believing they would have been in possession of such a framework at the time, and reacted rationally. However, this perspective overestimates the level of visibility investors had at the time had who did not benefit from such a precedent.

This is the very definition of hindsight bias - overestimating how much was known/knowable at the time in light of new information that subsequently emerges. In the 1970s, an OPEC oil embargo, which tripled oil prices virtually overnight, and lead to double-digit inflation and treasury bond yields, was also unprecedented. The world economy was fundamentally dependent on OPEC oil, and the supply had just been choked off. The world as we knew it had changed. After the dramatic and tragic events of September 11, it was also widely believed that the world had changed forever, and that the old rules may no longer apply. The GFC was similarly 'unprecedented' in many ways. The point is, it is always unprecedented, because it if was not, markets would not go down anywhere near as much. You'd have 10-20% ish corrections - sure - but not the 40%-esque meltdown we saw during 1Q20, which was one of the largest and fastest market crashes in financial history.

The error is in believing that it is known unknowns, including known risks/headwinds to the economy, that drive major market sell offs/panics. It is associated with the well-known bias of 'generals fighting the last war': investors believe the next market downturn will look just like the last or prior downturns, and they believe markets will react in the same way. And knowing how those downturns played out, investors feel confident they will be well positioned to navigate the downturn and profit from other investors being irrationally pessimistic.

But markets don't work like that. The additional comfort the above would-be bargain hunter derives from knowing how similar cycles have played out in the past will also be felt by would-be irrational sellers, who are apt to behave far less irrationally the next time a similar downturn occurs, having already been aware of the risk of its recurrence and prepared accordingly. Cyclicals and financials, for instance, have remained cheap in recent years, despite a long bull market, precisely because investors have feared another recession that looked a lot like past recessions, and thus avoided such names. Known unknowns do not drive major market panics, because the necessary degree of fear, anxiety, confusion, disorientation and outright panic is unlikely to be sufficiently present.

It is instead the emergence of unknown unknowns - new and novel risk factors that investors were not previously aware of and had not factored into their expectations/risk appetites, that drive crashes. A crash occurs because it triggers a rapid and synchronous de-risking of portfolios, as people react to the new, unanticipated risk factor, and reposition their portfolios to reflect the increased degree of uncertainty, including the endogenous uncertainty associated with extreme asset price volatility itself (i.e. regardless of its cause, many investors cannot/will not tolerate extremely high degrees of volatility/price declines, and this creates the feedback loop necessary for a crash to occur - i.e. when selling and falling prices beget yet more selling, as de-risking accelerates).

Investors get scared, and they decide to increase their cash allocations from (say) 5% to 20%, to 'preserve capital' in the face of the newly-uncertain environment, and 'prepare for future opportunities amidst the coming downturn'. They do this because they believe an abundance of caution to now be warranted given what has become an extremely uncertain/risky outlook, and also because they mistakenly believe that because the economic fallout is likely to last quite some time, that markets will also inevitably continue to go down/remain weak for a long time to come as well. Ego, 'future opportunities' will be significant, and cash will allow them to take advantage of them.

The problem with this perspective and behaviour is that it is classic 'first-level thinking', instead of the more desirable second-level thinking necessary in markets (hat tip Howard Marks). What investors fail to understand is that it is precisely the synchronised move to higher cash allocations and a more defensive positioning mirroring their cautious outlook - which they themselves were very much a part of - that caused the market to crash in the first place. If everyone increases cash allocations from 5% to 20% at the same time, markets will crash, regardless of the cause. And that has absolutely been the case, from retail to institutional investors, to insurance companies and other institutions alike (QBE Insurance, for instance, recently came out and said they had "materially de-risked the investment book including exiting all equities, emerging market and high yield debt"; HK Exchanges similarly exited 100% of its equity exposure in March and early April).

The thoughtful market observer would ask the question, so what happens next? Most of these investors don't plan to continue to hold 20% cash indefinitely. They are looking to re-deploy it back into equities at a time they perceive to be more opportune. What they really mean when they say that is 'when the outlook is less uncertain and they feel more comfortable', but what they overlook is that sellers will also feel more comfortable at this point; however, the important practical point is that it means they will be future net buyers of equities. Furthermore, they have already sold as much stock as they want/need to sell in order to feel comfortable with their remaining exposure in the face of what they expect will be considerable economic fallout in the medium term. Given their already very cautious outlook, it is therefore unlikely they will sell a whole lot more in the future.

What has happened at this point is that a previously unknown unknown has now become a known unknown, and consequently is now already factored into investor risk appetite and market positioning, and so it ceases to have much impact on market prices. And this is true regardless of whether the underlying economy is weak or not, because the economy does not drive stocks prices - demand and supply do. At this point, and in contrast to the intuitions most recently-scared investors harbour, a further market crash actually becomes extremely unlikely, and those sitting in cash hoping for more of the same are very likely to have their hopes dashed.

This is why markets almost always bottom well before the real economy, and recover in a manner that confounds most investors. Right when the majority of investors have just finished selling down, raising cash, and positioning themselves cautiously and in preparation for the 'coming downturn' and the 'buying opportunities' sure to emerge therefrom, markets start to rally and the opportunities they had hoped and expected to encounter swiftly disappear. The buying opportunities are not created by the economic downturn per se, but investors preparing for the economic downturn by raising cash.

They are left high and dry holding a bunch of cash. They are confused, and perhaps even angry at the market for behaving so irrationally, and ignoring how bad things are in the real economy. They claim investors are ignoring economic realities. They say the rally must be a dead cat bounce. They say bear market rallies are common and investors are being fooled by it. They say investors are too optimistic on the speed of the recovery. They say it's because investors are overly acclimated to 'buying the dip', etc. They use every excuse they can muster to avoid admitting to themselves the sad reality that they may have sold at the bottom, just like patsies do every bear market. What they are really doing is hoping markets go back down so they have a second chance to buy stocks as cheap as they were recently trading, but with so many cashed-up investors similarly hoping for a further pull back, such an outcome is inherently self-defeating. There is simply too much cash on the sidelines waiting for an opportunity to buy the second dip for markets to go down enough to retest their lows.

There never has been, and never will be, a law of the universe that dictates that stocks will go down just because the economy remains weak, and the actual truth is that markets almost never go down much - if at all - when investors are already cautiously positioned for a known unknown, and are already holding a lot of cash in preparation for a difficult and uncertain future. They go down a lot when people go from being aggressively positioned to defensively positioned en mass, because they were not previously expecting future turmoil/economic stress, and they now are. Once people are defensively positioned, markets are apt to rise because the selling pressure of people moving into a defensive position abates, and there is far more latent buying lying in wait (i.e. all the cash people raised to take advantage of buying opportunities), and too few sellers left.

Every single time there is a recovery from a major economic shock/market sell-off, the same thing happens; people react with the same credulity, and believe the market is ignoring the fundamentals. Throughout the substantial 2009 market recovery from the GFC lows, there was widespread skepticism about the durability of the rally. Didn't people know that the economy is in a mess and it is going to take years to recover from it? Yes, they did, and that was the whole problem. It was no longer an unknown unknown. The economy contracted throughout 2009 and unemployment continued to rise, and yet stocks continued to rally, not only through 2009, but for the next decade.


Is it really accurate to say markets are ignoring the economy?

This brings me to my second critique - the idea that the market is ignoring the 'fundamentals' at the moment. While the cash-is-king bears would love this to be true, the reality is that this is simply not the case. What the market is actually doing is what it always does during market recoveries from crises/crashes - ignoring lagging/co-incident indicators that suggest bad things are happening in the economy that were already widely anticipated to occur during the panic, and instead focusing on the leading indicators which are pointing to an improving medium term trajectory.

Furthermore, even if conditions get every bit as bad as anticipated, but they stabilise at those terrible levels, the degree of uncertainty still declines, as fear of the unknown is replaced with tangible knowledge of how bad things actually will get. If you're convicted of a crime but are awaiting sentencing, while your 'sentence' might be bad, there is also some comfort in knowing exactly what it is, so you can accept and deal with it, and don't have to worry about unlikely worst case outcomes. This is a large cause of the well-known 'sell the rumour, buy the fact' dynamic in markets as well. In markets, people can tolerate things being bad; what they can't tolerate is extreme uncertainty.

Everyone expected the economy to take a massive hit and unemployment to surge on account of the lockdowns in March. Panic about the absolute carnage that would befall global economies on account of widespread government lockdowns is what drove many asset markets down 40% in the space of 4 weeks, and many individual stocks down by as much as 80%. Sell-offs of this magnitude are extremely rare, and do not happen if investors aren't expecting something approaching Armageddon. It is therefore not surprising newsflow confirming that a lot of these things happened in April - notably disastrous US payrolls - has had no additional negative impact on markets.

What has actually been happening over the past six weeks or so of market recovery is that investors have been reacting not to the economic downturn that was already widely expected and priced in, but instead to growing evidence that the duration of the downturn and the breadth of severe impacts may have been meaningfully overestimated. For airlines, the downturn has so far been every bit as bad as feared, but for many other companies, earnings have proven far more resilient than many investors assumed they would. This is because - as I discussed in my original article - in actual fact large parts of the economy have remained relatively unaffected, and we now have unprecedented ability to work and shop online in the modern era. There has also been a 'headline' bias - no one was writing news stories during March about countries and states that are not locking down (except Sweden).

Reporting season has aided in this regard, as a void of corporate silence has been replaced with hard facts about the degree of impact companies are seeing in their business, along with post balance-day trends. Generally speaking, results and recent trends have been less bad than previously feared, and most companies are reporting that the nadir was seen in early April, and a steady recovery has been building thereafter, aided by fiscal support which was significantly underestimated. Commentators not acknowledging this reality have been utterly consumed by confirmation bias.

Furthermore, pulling up a bit, it cannot be ignored that the trend in new infections and deaths has been declining almost everywhere. It is no coincidence that markets bottomed on 23rd March, only two days after new case volume peaked in Italy, after which it has exhibited a very substantially declining trend. This outcome is being mirrored almost everywhere, with varying degrees of lag. Social distancing policies have worked, but it hasn't been just that. Even in nations without hard lockdowns, like Sweden, are seeing similar trends, while many states/countries without large-scale public transportation and/or dense populations have seen case volume and total deaths come in way below the expectations that existed even at the time lockdowns were instituted.



https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/italy/

This likely reflects a combination of the overestimation of many mechanisms of community transmission (i.e. countries/states where private commuting occurs instead of the use of mass public transportation seem generally less affected), as well as voluntary behavioural changes and increased sanitation practices in workplaces (face masks, temperature screening, testing, etc), which is something I discussed in my original blog article. Evidence is also emerging that a disproportionate amount of transmission in cases leading to death has been happening within the hospitals themselves (there isn't a lot of social distancing in hospitals), as well as in nursing homes (see John Tepper's excellent article on this - a must read). This is important, because it appears likely that the prevalence of community transmission has been meaningfully overestimated, which will contribute to the spread of covid-19 being managed in less economically destructive ways in the future.

Estimated death rates have also continued to plummet as we have increased testing, due to the highly-predictable 'denominator effects' I discussed in my original article. Initially thought to be 3-5%, death rates have now been revised down to closer to 0.3-0.5%, and even that may prove to be an overestimate. Singapore, where very widespread testing is happening, has seen 18 deaths from 18,000 cases - a death rate of just 0.1%. This has two implications. Firstly, it means the lethality of the virus is an order of magnitude less than previously thought; and secondly, it means the number of people that have already contracted the disease is an order of magnitude more than originally thought as well. That means we are coming off a much higher base of virus penetration, which will make it easier to bring case volume and deaths down, and mean there will be a larger than anticipated degree of herd immunity in place to help moderate the severity of second waves.

To see what people thought a few months ago, one need only look at the hysterical musings of people like John Hempton, who after reading a bunch of academic papers and convincing himself he had a 'substantial edge' over the market in understanding covid-19, was calling for hundreds of thousands of deaths in Australia without radical action, and was publicly calling PM Scott Morrison a mass murderer for not doing enough. Australia's death toll as at 10 May has come in at 97 thus far - three orders of magnitude less than Hempton's expectations. Hempton made money shorting the market in March, but did so because enough people - policymakers and other investors - made the same mistake he did. He was right for the wrong reasons. It was this degree of hysteria that was driving markets in March. People really thought the virus was going to kill 3-5%+ of the people it infected, including policymakers, whose extreme policies largely reflected that error of judgment.

Anyone who has studied statistics 101 should have been alert to the dangers of extrapolating from small, unrepresentative sample sizes - in this case, the death rate emanating from the subset of people sick enough to visit hospitals and get tested, rather than the entire population of people infected with the disease. The latter statistic could only be ascertained by a randomised test of a representative sample of the population, and all such tests to date have revealed much wider prevalence than previously expected (and hence a much lower average severity rate). Some antibody tests suggest as much as 15-20% of the population may have contracted it in parts of Germany and Italy.

However, as is often the case in environments of heightened emotion, people failed to reason rationally, relying too much on anecdote and not enough on hard data/statistics - a common psychological failing of human beings, whose intellect evolved to facilitate complex social interactions, not mathematical/statistical nuance. The world is a big place and the population is genetically diverse. There will always be someone, somewhere, who is young and healthy, and has an atypically severe experience with the disease, whose story can be told via the mass/social media. But we have long known that anecdote is a poor substitute for representative data.

The reality is that as bad as covid-19 is from a public health point of view, the data is not turning out anywhere near as bad as people initially feared, and anyone who does not believe this has important implications for the likely severity and duration of this covid-19 induced economic downturn is kidding themselves. Remember, this downturn has not been caused by covid-19 per se, but our policy reaction to covid-19, which has contained some flawed premises. The crisis is entirely man-made, and can be largely undone just as easily by reversing such policies. And as case numbers and deaths have declined, lockdown policies have already started to be relaxed almost everywhere.

Most companies report that activity levels bottomed in early April and have started to steadily recover since that time, aided also by fiscal stimulus measures starting to be felt. Oil demand has started to recover as commuting demand is slowly returning. Even several consumer financing companies in the US have said that the level of delinquencies has started to decline, after peaking in early April, as consumers begin to receive stimulus checks, and being home-bound, are unable to spend money on travel and entertainment, and so are committing funds to debt reduction instead.

China has seen a veritable V-shaped recovery, with many companies operating in the region saying that their factory production is back to near full capacity, and while end consumer demand has not fully recovered in all places, it is rapidly on the way there, despite a significant demand shock to the country's export sector, as lockdown policies in the rest of the world have come into effect. Consider this slide from Adient's 1Q20 calendar quarter for instance. People that say 'we have no playbook for how the economic recovery will look', but we actually do - just look at China.


During market recoveries from significant sell-offs, markets have never focused on how bad things presently are, but instead trends in the second-derivative and leading indicators, and for good reason: the stabilisation of activity at the bottom, and 'green shoots' of initial recovery, are extremely important because of (1) the way the economy works and the way economic actors behave; and (2) the degree to which it reduces psychological stress/uncertainty.

With respect to #1, if you are a company and you see your revenue falling, you react by cutting opex and capex, and increasingly go into survival mode and seek to preserve cash. If your revenue keeps falling, you will keep cutting opex and capex more, and the problem of course is that your opex and capex is somebody else's revenue. This creates a downward self-sustaining cycle in the broader economy, which if left unchecked can spiral into something resembling the great depression.

This is why signs of stabilisation and initial recovery - even if very modest - are so important. Once corporates see their revenue start to stabilise and tentatively improve, they will stop cutting capex and opex further, and may even very tentatively start to increase it - of the 10 projects they cancelled, maybe they will go ahead with 1 that they were previously very reluctant to cancel. Once the curve turns, the self-sustaining forces on the downside flip into self-sustaining forces driving a recovery. As capex & opex starts to turn very slightly up, corporate revenue starts to improve, and then they start to rehire and restart projects, etc. This is why leading indicators are so important.

The second reason is that the degree of uncertainty for investors radically diminishes. When you enter into a downturn and the economy continues to worsen, investors feel like they are walking into a dark tunnel, and the further they walk in, the darker and scarier it gets. They know, intellectually, that the tunnel has a finite duration, but they don't know how long the tunnel is and how dark it is going to get. So long as it keeps getting darker and darker, anxieties worsen. There is a lack of any sense of hope, and it becomes easier for investors to entertain worst-case scenarios, and start to view them as base case likelihoods. 'What if the tunnel goes on not just for hours, but for days, weeks, months, or even years?!', 'What if the tunnel has no end at all!?'. 'What happens if I'm actually walking around in circles and don't realise it!?" 'What if there are strange creatures or undiscovered species of monsters lurking in this tunnel'!?

However, at some point, a very faint light at the end of the tunnel emerges. At this stage, the psychology changes. Now sure - there is still a hell of a lot of really dark tunnel to walk through, which is a real drag (i.e. the economy is going to remain extremely weak for quite some time yet), but now not only is there a renewed sense of hope, but one can also start to form a more sensible and realistic assessment of how dark it is likely to be and for how long, when before one had no idea. The degree of uncertainty diminishes, which allows investors to more rationally assess and quantify the probable economic damage, and the realistic degree of impact on companies' earnings and balance sheets, and increasingly wild speculation about improbable worst case scenarios also tends to ease up. And owing to the market's propensity to significantly overreact in the short term, in almost all cases, such rational assessments reveal that markets have been massively oversold.

People forget that stocks are long duration assets. If a stock drops 40% from 20x earnings to 12x earnings in a market crash, the market has just subtracted eight years worth of profits from the valuation. If the company comes out and says, yeah earnings were down 50% in 1Q20, and we think we will operate at a small loss in 2Q, before recovering to 75% of normal profitability in 2H20 based on trends we are already seeing in our revenues and costs, with a full recovery likely during 2021-22, it is not hard to see how investors could start to reconsider whether such a dramatic repricing of the stock was truly justified. Commentators that therefore say "but the economy is still so bad"; "but their earnings are going to be way down in 2Q", "but unemployment and the economy are going to remain weak for a while yet", therefore completely miss the point. The types of share price declines previously exhibited required things be much much much worse than that to justify.

Investors will look through short term earnings pressures and price the impact in a rational manner provided some critical threshold of uncertainty is not breached. When uncertainty is high enough, investors panic and sell and sometimes, no price seems too low. However, when uncertainty declines back below this critical threshold, investor behaviour becomes far more rational, and when that happens, markets are apt to sharply rally from deeply oversold levels. That is exactly what we have started to see in recent weeks/months, as the degree of uncertainty has moderated.


The dangers of reasoning by analogy

A final point worth discussing about recent market experience is the danger of reasoning by analogy - something I blogged about last year, and which is a very frequent cause of poor judgment in markets (and in life). One of the reasons so many investors have been paralyzed by fear during this downturn is that they have no way of thinking other than by analogy, and there are no analogies to draw on with respect to how to invest through a pandemic and government lockdown, so they have defaulted to one of two positions - both flawed. Either they say that because this event is completely unprecedented, the amount of uncertainty is so high that no reasonable basis for forming any assessment on the outlook exists; or they default to comparing the downturn to the GFC or even the great depression, because - well - um - stocks and the economy went down a lot then too.

There are multiple problems with this approach. Firstly, an aside on uncertainty: the reality is that the future is always uncertain; it just feels more uncertain to investors at certain times. This is because, as noted, the primary risk in markets is not known unknowns, but unknown unknowns. Six months ago, the outlook felt more certain, but little did we know that covid-19 was about to emerge and wreak havoc with the global economy and financial markets. Risk comes from the fact that unknown unknowns exist in the world, and by definition, such unknowns cannot be foreseen. The outlook therefore might feel more or less uncertain to you, but that is an illusion. And even if the outlook for the economy is in fact objectively more uncertain today than it was six months ago, that does not mean the outlook for markets is more uncertain or riskier than normal, because covid-19 is now a known unknown.

Furthermore, the amount of opportunity that exists in markets is directly proportional to the level of uncertainty or perceived uncertainty that exists, because markets/people hate feeling uncertain. That is because investors/people are not comfortable thinking in terms of probabilities - they like black and white, yes and no answers - something I have also blogged about in the past - and if they can't feel sure they know what is going to happen, they don't feel like they can act. But that is not rational - you can weigh the probabilities, and you must, because there is no other way to operate in markets - at any time. And as a buyer, the more uncertain the outlook the better, because the market systematically underprices assets in an environment of uncertainty. Using a high level of uncertainty as a justification for sitting on one's hands may sound sage and prudent, but it is actually foolish.

But I digress; the more important point I want to make here is that the idea that one cannot form reasonable judgments about the outlook and the probabilities in the absence of analogies or historical precedents is flawed. The truth is, the very best opportunities in markets - whether they be at the market, industry, or individual stock level - always exist in situations where there are novel events or changes happening that render past analogies obsolete. It disorients investors and makes them uncomfortable investing. That is how stocks get very cheap. Great investors are the ones who are original thinkers and are able to reason from first principles without requiring the crutch of analogy. This is something Warren Buffett has obliquely mentioned, when he said he seeks out in successors a very rare trait, which is an ability to think about and anticipate risks that have never happened before. In other words, people that think independently from first principles and don't rely on analogies with the past to form useful judgments.

While I might yet still be proven wrong in my views, my article in March was an example of reasoning from first principles. None of those views were based on analogies with what happened in the past, but instead an analysis of the present situation, and the best evidence that was currently available. While it is possible I simply got lucky with my views, as a general rule I believe it is wrong to believe reasonable judgments cannot be formed in the absence of analogy. Indeed, this is exactly the process I follow with individual stocks. The subject matter is different, but the process the same. Being a good investor is fundamentally about the ability to form reasonable judgments in the face of uncertainty and incomplete evidence. If you can't do that, you will feel compelled to wait until the uncertainty is resolved and all the evidence is in, but by that stage the opportunity will no longer exist. The default to lazy, analogy-laden thinking will not work in novel situations, and it can also lead you astray in other situations where analogies lead to important nuances being missed.

Because no pandemic analogy exists, but people feel they need to have one, a lot of investors have defaulted to analogizing the GFC or even the Great Depression. The extent and duration of stock market decline during these periods has often been used as a guide to what we ought to expect this time. One major brokerage firm published a chart showing how the stock market decline was progressing in time relative to those seen during the Great Depression, with a clear implication that this was in some way useful in assessing the outlook for markets at present. This is completely foolhardy. Anyone can say, for e.g, in the GFC markets went down 50% and it took 18 months to bottom, and so in this downturn markets will go down 50% and take 18 months to bottom. The problem is that the nature of this downturn has almost nothing in common with the GFC at all.

One of the potential consequences of the widespread use of lazy and inappropriate analogies is that people's intuitions on the potential shape and speed of the recovery may be very materially off. I have seen many people argue that oil demand will not recover until 2022-23. I've seen people argue that there will be radical and permanent changes to peoples lifestyles, including people working from home long into the future instead of at the office; and staying home and using online services for everything instead of going out. And yet recently reopened cruise bookings for August has surged 600%. This view reflects a combination of profound myopia and a misapprehension of human nature. The truth is, people are desperate to get out of the damn house, meet with friends and family, resume hobbies, and go on vacations. While hesitations will persist for a while out of concern for health and safety, it is human nature for risk to be normalised over time, and for people to learn to adapt to the presence of risk. Huge numbers of people die every year from dengue fever in Asia. It doesn't keep people paralyzed with fear. They accept the risk and get on with their lives.

In my view, there is no sound basis to automatically assume the recovery will necessarily be as slow and drawn out as the recovery from the GFC. It might be, but it's just as likely to be much faster than people expect, because this is not a financial crisis or even a covid-19 crisis - it's a government policy/lockdown crisis that is man-made, and therefore can just as easily be reversed as it was engineered. This crisis had a simple cause - the government forced people to stay home, where many people couldn't work and couldn't go out and spend money. When they go back to work, it stands to reason that productivity and consumer spending will rapidly revert to near normal levels, as we are already seeing in China.

Indeed, if people insist on using an analogy, the one they should be using is what is happening in the Chinese economy at the moment! That is absolutely the best analogy we have to draw on, because they are about 2 months ahead of the West in terms of the infection curve, the economic lockdown hit, and the ensuing recovery. No doubt people will be inclined to say 'but China is different', and yet they are seeking an analogy, and are using analogies far less instructive in its place.

When people look back at this sell off many years from now - particularly investors that did not live through it - they will say 'this was a very obvious buying opportunity; if it were me, I would have been smart and rational enough to buy, because it was obvious the economic impact was only going to be temporary; next time there is a pandemic that tanks markets 40%, I'm going to buy by the truckload'. The problem is that the next event that causes a 40% market crash will not be a pandemic. The next time there is a pandemic (unless it's materially more virulent and deadly), markets might only fall 10-15% because investors will know the playbook and so it won't be as scary. It will be something else that cause investors to believe 'life as we know it has changed'.


LT3000



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      Hello my name is Jenna i want to share my amazing experience with the greatest spell caster Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about him and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back,thank you once again Priest Ade you are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you contact ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com 
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      Hello my name is Jenna i want to share my amazing experience with the greatest spell caster Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about him and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back,thank you once again Priest Ade you are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you contact ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com 
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  2. First off, I'd like to say thank you for sharing your thoughts so coherently all this while. My portfolio was down 30% in mid-March but your posts convinced me that things weren't as bad as they seemed, so I went "all in" in late March. Today my portfolio is at +1% overall and I believe it's a solid mix of stocks that I can sit on for the next 3-5 years, possibly even 10 years.

    One thing that really shocked me about this crisis is the different ways that value-oriented fund managers reacted to it. Aside from John Hempton's bravado as you described in your post, Vitaliy responded with his typical calming message about investing in quality stocks in line with his QVG framework, while Steve Johnson also calmly bought a few more stocks that he liked.

    There were two investors that really surprised me though. First and honourable mention was Roger Montgomery. When the crisis first hit, he made a good post on his website that the market always recovered quickly after previous pandemics (SARS, H1N1, hand foot mouth, bird flu, etc). It's arguably some form of reasoning by analogy, but much better than analogising to the GFC of course. Just a few weeks later he announced that his international fund had massively sold off a huge portion of its equities portfolio. I was stunned.

    The other of course is Buffett. I'm very hesitant to bring in age here, but the fact that Berkshire didn't invest heavily really colours me surprised too.

    Of course, I shouldn't be making a list of investors on your blog without mentioning your style. I haven't seen too many large fund managers that practise your style of being fully invested and taking advantage of volatility by jumping in and out of underpriced positions nimbly. Would you be comfortable sharing how your portfolio has performed throughout the crash? I'm asking because although negative performance is certainly understandable after a crash, I can't help but feel somewhat disappointed at not seeing funds like Montgomery and Forager taking full advantage of the volatility.

    Another question, if I may, is how did you quickly identify the stock prices that became massively underpriced? Do you keep a spreadsheet with a running "wishlist" filled with thousands of stocks that you're waiting to purchase, or do you use Bloomberg/Reuters filters to identify the stocks that fell the most in a particular day and then take a closer look from there?

    Going forward, when the volatility-related opportunities die down and you have more time to write, one topic that I'm hoping you'll be able to touch on in future posts is diversification. Specifically, I'm aware that your approach is to use diversification as an opportunity to rebalance and take advantage of volatility, but I'd like to learn more about whether there's an overarching method to that diversification or whether it's purely about the most undervalued stocks without putting much weight on correlation within the portfolio.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Buffett isn't buying because US markets are still expensive, likely more so on average than before. Only the fish are blindly buying the decliners or calling it a historical opportunity.

      Delete
    2. Hi JB,

      Glad you've been enjoying posts. On varying investor reactions, it's like they say in war - you don't find out people's true character/nature until the bullets start flying. Recruits can excel in training, but it doesn't predict how they will react when they first see 'action'. People either grab a gun and get to work, or freeze. Investors are the same.

      On Roger Montgomery specifically, I've never particularly rated him - he always seems to be behind the curve, and is a highly conventional/consensus thinker. I don't find it uncommon to see him 'discovering' & buying a stock I had owned for a long time that has done well, and have recently exited because the merits are now starting to be well understood/discovered. It looks like he probably just got scared/freaked out, like many investors during the recent turbulence.

      On Buffett, I was also somewhat surprised by his degree of circumspection, but I think it's been somewhat exaggerated. His selling was entirely the airlines, and he did this for a simple reason: there has been substantial & real intrinsic value impairment, and he no longer believes the stocks are trading at a cheap valuation relative to their likely future cash flows, as substantial operating losses will lead to higher debt levels & probable material equity dilution. I haven't bought any of the airlines in this crisis & or been remotely tempted. I never much liked the industry; fixed costs and leverage are high; and air travel will be one of the last things to recover. There are far superior options out there IMO.

      I was surprised about how little buying he did, though (albeit he did do some, and was a cautious net buyer ex airlines). I suspect it's because a lot of the stuff that got hit hard in the megacap space was things he already owned (e.g. US banks), and he is also still thinking through the exposure of his insurance operations. His universe is also constrained as BRK is now so big - he can only buy megacap stocks and there aren't many to choose from, and they didn't get that cheap in the aggregate, excluding financials. The real carnage was in small & mid cap space and in EM, which BRK doesn't play.

      Buffett also seems to have got a bit too reliant on 'waiting for the phone to ring', instead of getting on the front foot. It didn't ring with the sorts of deals he was looking for. He seems to have got a little lazy, but we can't be too hard on him - he's nearly 90. He has also transitioned to a more risk averse stance more generally, as he wants BRK to be around a long time and many holders have 100% of their wealth in it. I must admit I was surprised about how 'shell shocked' he appeared, though.

      My own performance has been terrible. I was down nearly 40% at the lows (in USD). I'm still down a bit less than 30% so you've done a lot better than me. I've been exposed to all the wrong 'factors'; have had EM where currency declines have also been significant, including oil-sensitive currencies like the Ruble, and also owned a lot of financials and cyclicals. It's been a disastrous year for traditional value as well, which hasn't helped. Operationally, the companies I own are holding up well though, and almost every stock I own has rallied sharply on their recent earnings reports. Not a single company I own has raised capital and most have not even cut their dividends. In the short term perception matters more than reality, but reality matters in the long term, so I'm not perturbed.

      I went into downturn fully invested, but have taken advantage of opportunities - quite often more of the same stocks I own - by rebalancing/allocation and also dividend reinvestment, as yield on my portfolio is now about 9%. I follow a lot of companies though so I've been able to jump into new ideas when the opportunity allowed also.

      Cheers,
      LT

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      Delete
  3. What explains Buffett's somewhat morose comments at the last shareholders meeting?

    ReplyDelete
  4. Lyall, thanks for the really great article. One question for you, i've noticed that you continued to highlight a number of principles to investing in a number of your posts over time do you have any definitive posts that provide an overview of something like the "10 commandments of investing" You know similar to how Buffett has his owners manual or Fundsmith has an owners manual.


    I am slowly working through all of your blog posts as i have found it to be a great investing resource to learn from. thanks again.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Notorious.

      No such unifying post I'm afraid. Views are scattered throughout the various posts. Sorry!

      Cheers,
      Lyall

      Delete
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  5. Here's a thought on Buffett's response that I hope is at least somewhat original, as I've observed Lyall's comments and now Jabberwocky's and Anonymous's.

    Leaving aside the size of Berkshire and Buffett's age (both relevant factors, to be sure), I'm reminded of one of Buffett's core tenets and then two bits of circumstantial evidence.

    First, the core tenet – Buffett and Munger have spent their career trying to stay within their circle of competence and focusing on making money more easily and with less risk whenever possible. Now, consider previous crashes. The GFC was a bubble-bursting, crash, and downturn that fell right into Buffett's circle of competence – the U.S. housing market and global financial system. As a consequence, he was already going to be very much involved in everything that went on, and adjusting for Berkshire's size and, again, his personal competencies, I suspect he was able to generate some alpha. As for the Internet (Telecom/dot-com) crash of 2000-2003, wasn't it precisely Buffett's adherence to his principle of staying within his circle of competence that kept him out of the mania and able to profit from the resurgence in value, old economy stocks, and the like. Again, adjusting for Berkshire's size at that time and, again, his personal competencies, I suspect he was able to generate some alpha. But in the Covid-19 crisis, adhering to the core tenet of remaining in his circle of competence may have resulted in Buffett effectively tying his own hands. The thinking might have been, "Well, this is a public health crisis that is contingent on factors in the fields of science and medicine that I have no expertise in, hence I must be conservative."

    Now, for the two bits of circumstantial evidence. Whose expertise did Buffett cite (gush about, even) during his shareholder meeting? Bill Gates and Dr. Anthony Fauci. Since we know that both of these experts (or "experts," depending on your opinion of them) have tended to hold positions anywhere from alarmist to "painfully realistic" on a consistent basis, if Buffett were going to try to expand his circle of competence to Covid-19 related factors in order to navigate this particular crisis better, his perspective is likely to have ended up a fairly circumspect and pessimistic one if those two were his primary sources of information and advice. I wonder if Buffett, given his own intellect and proven ability to reason from first principles, wouldn't have been better off talking to neither of his buddies, Bill and Tony, and trying to figure out the situation for himself, as Lyall was doing in real-time.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Of course, it's possible there's a much simpler explanation – Berkshire being too big would be one; Buffett getting too old would be another – but since Occam's razor demands it, I'll throw in a third, which is that Buffett has always favored risk-minimization in his portfolio construction process, and that approach or preference will only be able to generate alpha under certain circumstances. Since the stocks that got cheapest in the most recent crash were already the ones with the highest relative risk (or perhaps in sectors where Berkshire is already basically fully exposed, such as the biggest, "safest" banks), Buffett was never going to be a buyer or lender. Both Buffett and Munger have seemed to allude to this phenomenon over the last month or so, as well – suggesting that the calls they got early on were from companies in "crappy" situations where perhaps no rate would have been both high enough and mutually agreeable. Then, once the Fed got the credit markets working again, those crappy companies got money at much lower rates than Buffett would ever have contemplated. Knowing that it would be almost impossible to "beat" the broader market by generating excess return, perhaps the logic effectively becomes trying to "beat" the market by having less intrinsic risk (hence the move to a greater cash balance, etc.)

      As for implications with respect to Buffett's status as "investor" or Berkshire's status as "investment," I've not been particularly swayed by the most recent episode. Sadly, he is old, and I'm already anticipating missing him, but if/when Berkshire is cheap enough, I'm happy to buy, as I expect shares to remain a very interesting asset for a long time to come.

      Anyway, great post LT. Saw you tweeting in real-time. Amazing record of calling different bottoms over the past few years. Wish you all the best over the long-run.

      Delete
    2. Thanks for your comments TS,

      I broadly agree. I discuss my take on Buffett above in an earlier comment reply. Buffett has not experienced an event like this in his long investment career, so his experience does not necessarily place him any better than anyone else in assessing the likely outcome.

      I think it's also mostly a case of Berkshire being too big; him having become a lot more risk averse; Gates etc having his ear (I agree that probably contributed negatively); and also being exposed to a lot of companies suffering very real intrinsic value impairment - most obviously the airlines. He was a net buyer of stocks ex the airlines during March though, which I discussed above are a very specific case, so I think people have perhaps read a little too much into his cautious tone. He's still buying stocks - just not as much as expected. I think the size of Berk has been a major hindrance in this regard too - there have been huge opportunities in this sell off, but not in the US megacap space, where Buffett plays. US financials have also suffered intrinsic value impairment not just due to higher loan losses, but much lower interest rates also hurting their core profitability. Lower rates also hurt Berk's insurance subs.

      Cheers,
      LT

      Delete
  6. Lyall, another excellent post.

    Additional to your well made points, I suspect that many investors are at an enormous disadvantage during a time of crisis, because they have a steadfast refusal to contemplate the 'top down'. Many have come to believe that a 'true value investor' must be 100% 'bottom up'.

    So many value investors sing the "Mr Market is bipolar" song - but don't think about the fact that in a panic, they probably ARE Mr Market. If one is to be impervious to the moods of Mr Market, during a crisis, then I think one needs to have better understanding of the 'top down'- a little macro-economics, and a little market psychology.

    Bottom up considerations cannot adequately help one to decide whether or not the market is behaving rationally in the midst of panic. Also, if one has come to the opinion that intrinsic value is going up in smoke, bottom up analysis has a limited ability to provide guidance.

    The problem is that actions taken (or avoided) at time of crisis can have a disproportionately large influence on long term investment outcomes.

    Up until a few years ago, bottom up considerations were my exclusive focus too. This partly because it happened to have served me well during the GFC (and other events), and partly because as a practising engineer (at the time), I was time limited (as well as energy limited). I feel very fortunate that I have learnt much in this regard, in the last few years, and in the lead-up to this latest panic. I refer to my more recent learnings in macro-economics (basic though they are) and market psychology and how it impacts short term supply/demand and thus prices. I must say too, I have learnt much from your musings Lyall. In terms of market psychology and supply & demand, I have also learnt much from investor Ken Fisher - someone who get's very little airplay in value investing circles, and in fact is derided by many.

    To repeat one of your key points, we need to try to learn 1st principles and get away from fixating on the dogma of the current era. Many of us, in trying to narrow in on the ‘ultimate truth’ of investing, end up with ideology (in large part).

    Now I’m not suggesting I took as much benefit from the latest crash as I could have (and probably should have). But I think these bottom-down considerations (market psychology, supply and demand, financial liquidity) helped steady my nerves and possibly prevented me from making big mistakes.

    For instance, whilst one could easily have analogised to the Great Depression (as you say) – thinking about the macro and psychology, one could see that the 1929 bull encompassed broad market euphoria and leverage-on-leverage (eg, margins loans provided by leveraged brokers, investing in geared equities). This meant that as the market declined, people were initially eager to ‘buy-the-dip’ (because the fundamentals were deteriorating, but the markets optimism was still largely intact). However, eventually, as the optimism evaporated to catch up with reality, the prior lows were re-tested (and then some).

    This was completely different from the lead into the pandemic. The market was not euphoric at all (apart from in tech) and many industrials were priced for recession. So whilst people went into the Great Depression, looking for good news, people went into this latest crisis, looking for bad news. As such, I suspect this is a big part of the reason that the recovery after March was likely not analogous to the bear market rally post the 1929 crash.


    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. EDIT, 3nd para from the bottom, 2nd sentence: "...these top-down considerations..."

      Delete
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  8. Such a fantastic article. Thanks for writing this. Big fan of your analysis and writing here.

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  9. As usual a great post to read! Thx!

    ReplyDelete
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  11. I think it's too earlier to tell. Once the job keeper job seeker or other government subsidy are gone we will see the real impact.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Great article, thanks Lyall. I had been meaning to comment on your March one that you called it!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. A month later and we're all convinced that was the end of it?

      Delete
    2. Remember, we are talking about the market, not so much the economy. It's the fact most of us are convinced "it's not over" that makes it less likely the March lows will be re-tested. What we all feel, drives the market level, all else equal.

      But "less likely" does not mean impossible.

      Delete
    3. It doesn't mean anything is less likely, you're just completely obsequious and talking out of your ass. We have no idea what investor sentiment and liquidity will look like in a year.

      Delete
    4. Extremely patronizing, pedantic comment btw. Whenever someone starts a paragraph with "remember", watch out for flippant nonsense.

      Delete
    5. Your indignation would carry more weight without the cover of anonymity.

      Delete
    6. It certainly would

      Delete
    7. Your response was written as if either you hadn't read the article, or didn't understand it. Nowhere does Lyall suggest that 'this was the end of it'.

      Delete
    8. Very strange comment, given that he said, regarding stock prices, "the lows are likely in" and this person just commended him for his prescience....

      Delete
    9. Anonymous,

      Obviously, no one knows with 100% surety what is going to happen. I don't. I'm giving my opinion on what is happening, why, and what I think will happen. I might be right and I might be wrong.

      It seems a bit strange, however, to get upset about someone expressing their opinion because it's not possible to be 100% sure. What would be the point of analysing anything if that was the standard? It's a very nihilistic approach.

      I've offered my time and effort, and no cost, providing my opinion about what is happening in good faith. You are under no obligation to read it if you do not wish to.

      Delete
  13. Really enjoyed the article. How fair is it to compare China's recovery to a future US recovery? China adopted far more controls and the population tends to not be as obese.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Might be a analogy you are creating that markets recover. If the Fed didn't drop interest rates to near zero and start buying up a heap of assets indirectly would the market recover? People still have faith in USD but history has shown no fiat currency lasts forever. So cover this risk so still confident to invest I hedge with yellow metal so yes less efficient than you but why be greedy get insurance so you can invest always.

    ReplyDelete
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  16. Agree with most of what was said in the post. However, I'd caution against thinking relying on herd immunity as the way out of this. We just saw China moving to test 11 million people living in Wuhan in 10 days. Let me repeat that, 11 million in 10 days in Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak. If I have to think of a place on Earth with the highest probability of herd immunity being established, it's either Wuhan or Lombardy. Could China be overreacting? Sure, but they must have a very good reason for that, and they're certainly not buying the herd immunity idea.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Fair point, but I'd also say, if you have the capacity to test 11 million people, why not do so? Why take the risk? You can avoid a second wave if there are early signs of infection rising just by testing everyone and then keeping people that have it home, instead of keeping everyone home.

      Lockdowns reflect an information gap - we don't know who has it and who doesn't. Comprehensive testing bridges that gap. I would say it's a pretty smart policy, if you can do it.

      Delete
  17. Another great post - thanks mate. What is you take on Bank of Ireland? Looks dirt cheap to me at 0.1x BV & 3x earning. Cheers

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Have looked at. Don't own it. It's cheap, like many banks. But when you're assessing how risky they are, you need to look at their organic pre-provision operating income relative to how much risk they are taking, and how levered the equity is. The problem for BOI is that they are not very profitable, and earn only slightly more than 1% PPoV to total loans. That means if 5% of their book goes bad & needs to be written off, it will take 4-5 years of profits to absorb. I prefer to own banks where PPoV / risk assets exceeds 5%, and risk assets to equity leverage is no more than 5x.

      At the moment, markets are differentiating very poorly amongst banks. They are pricing banks leveraged 3-5x with PPoV / loans of 5-10% at the same multiples as banks with PPoV / loans of 1% and leverage of 10-15x. I've owned & been buying the former. It's hurt my performance recently because investors overestimating the level of risk of the former group. They may not be, for the latter group, however.

      I would probably buy some BOI at these levels in the absence of superior opportunities, but there are better and lower risk opportunities out there ATM in my view.

      Cheers,
      LT

      Delete
    2. Thanks Lyall - we all benefit greatly from your intellectual generosity :)

      Are you also looking at the materials sector at the moment? diversified miners like Glencore are looking way too cheap to ignore.

      Delete
  18. LT,

    Have you looked at the US life insurance companies like LMC, PRU or MET or the asset gathers like BEN?

    Indexing goes in cycles like everything else.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I'm curious about what LT thinks of life insurance firms as well. I've purchased GNW (risky, I know) and PRU because they both looked really cheap.

      My investment thesis for life insurance firms is as follows:
      - The young and healthy are life firms' most profitable customers, while the old and sick are the least profitable customers. E.g: If life expectancy is 85 years, then an insurer loses 10 years of premiums if a 75-year-old policyholder dies, and 55 years of premiums if a 30-year-old policyholder dies.
      - COVID-19 predominantly affects the old and the sick, while the young and healthy are pretty much unaffected.
      - Therefore, as a result of COVID-19, life insurance firms will lose their least profitable customers while retaining their most profitable customers (which young person would let their policy lapse when there's so much FUD going around?).

      The life firms will lose a bit of profit as a result of having to pay out some policies, of course, but most likely not enough to warrant a 50% fall in stock prices.

      Delete
  19. Thank you very much for the excellent read and sharing your insights. This is truly appreciated.

    While I fully agree with the medical view on this crisis, especially the investor impact of unknown unknowns, I would like to hear your opinion on the following:

    1.) Considering the current state of the economy 2018 has been a record year for corporates (e.g. profit margins) - of course, this includes the impact of the tax reduction on US corporates. 2019 has been interesting: while the stock prices increased substantially, profits/sales volumes did not - it looked like the economy was slowing down and was spurred only due to the reversal of FED policy.

    What do you make of the impact of FED actions in terms of buying power during this market. To my understanding many retail investors are still holding on to cash, for reasons you mentioned above. Do you see the FED as major driver of this share price recovery or do you think this is just a small piece of the puzzle?

    2.) From your point of view: given the overall debt level before COVID (including private debt overall at ~350% in relation of 2019-GDP) do you expect any serious issue in terms of ripple effects of credit crunches to the economy? As mentioned the end of the medical crisis can be seen (worst case = all people were infected, survivors will carry on with their lives) but what about the downturn in the real economy that only started? Do you think there will be a huge wave of upcoming bankruptcies or do you think things will get back to "normal" (=2019 levels) within this year?

    Disclaimer: I shorted the market by middle of February and was catched cold by the FED intervention in March - I held on to my shorts and do think the risk of a downturn is substantically higher than the chance of a recovery (in terms of further equity price elevations but more importantly the real economy.

    e.g. Uber: they said by middle of March Volumes were down ~70-80%. Uber said they a.) recovered ~40% from there by beginning of May which means they are still ~70% down. b.) they see an increase by ~7% per week which would mean it takes Uber, best case, around 4 month to get back to normal - again a best case which is feasible given their cash position (they cannot burn as much as it would need them to go bankrupt before that period).

    Would love to hear yout thoughts. Many thanks.

    Regards Timmy

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for your Qs:

      1) You have to be a bit careful with zoomed-out profit aggregates. A few things might be distorting picture. Firstly, the USD has been strong, which is a significant headwind to translated USD income on offshore income, which is a substantial portion of S&P earnings. Investors tend to focus on constant-currency growth. This headwind will reverse if the USD weakens.

      Secondly, we have a situation where the highest growth businesses are often losing more and more money. Investors are bidding these stocks up on the back of top line growth and valuing them on P/S. Meanwhile, the value stuff earnings has been fairly solid and growing, currency adjusted. Overall I found the earnings picture in 2019 pretty good on a bottom up basis, and there was a lot of evidence the economy was speeding up a lot into year end and early 2020 as well.

      2) I absolutely think Fed actions have played a large role. One regret I have with this article is that I forgot to mention it here, although mentioned it on Twitter several times & also passing reference in prior article.

      My view is that liquidity plays a very large role in asset pricing. It will not stop people from panicking and selling stocks down in fear, but after the fear subsides, stocks will trend back towards levels that reflect liquidity conditions and the underlying balance between the demand and supply of capital. With recent Fed actions, the supply of liquid capital has surged back to record levels.

      What that means is that, all else held constant, markets would be much much higher than their prior highs. However, because people are still conservatively positioned, they are not. A lot of people are mistaking the fact that markets are rising and multiples are not low for the fact that people are bullish. They are not. The actual reality is that capital is too abundant and the market clearing price of capital is very low. I discuss the dynamics behind this in my post on demystifying post-GFC economics. The Fed's recent actions have exacerbated the situation.

      It is even possible we end up having a 1998-00 style bubble. The Fed overreacted in 1997-98 to the Asian Financial Crisis, and loosened monetary conditions too much, which led to the dot. com bubble extremes. The same thing could happen again.

      Delete
    2. Appreciate your answer very much - huge fan. Started to follow you on twitter as well and look forward to teh discussions. Thank for sharing your view. A big fan. @Teldra2

      Delete
  20. But who woulda guessed with all the Chipotles closed and okay online sales that the stock would rech $1K?

    Shopify I get the transition to online has been huge right now.. great for their future.. but Chipotle..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yeah the price action is fairly extreme. People may be betting they benefit from reduced competition as smaller competitors go bankrupt. A very sad and unfortunate outcome of the lockdowns is that it will hit small business the hardest, and result in the strongest, largest, and most monopolistic businesses getting even stronger.

      Delete
  21. excellent article dear Lyall

    ReplyDelete
  22. Trump can act anyway he wants, they tried to run a coup on him and destroy his family.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The Democrats are through, Trump landslide coming, thanks for playing.

      Delete
  23. LT, take a break from Twitter, you are arguing with people that live in a false reality, it's called social media, it's for losers, doomers and psychos, all by design.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I wouldn't do it if I didn't enjoy it, and occasionally I also do get value out of it. Not all of the responses I get are unemotional or silly. Sometimes its helps reveal biases or blindspots I might have.

      Delete
    2. Should read *emotional* not unemotional.

      Delete
    3. Lyall, do you manage money for individual investors?

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  54. Am testifying of the miraculous work of a great traditional doctor called  Dr Maggi. I have been suffering from herpes since last 2 years with my Husband but today I am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine made by  Dr Maggi   the great healer, I was browsing the Internet searching for help when I came across a testimony shared by someone on how  Dr Maggi cure her from Herpes Disease. I quickly contacted him to get the cure and today i am now free from the Virus,drmaggiherbalhome@gmail.com you can also call or whatsApp him on +1(917) 979-6387

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  56. Hi viewers online, I'm Alfonso Vázquez from Mexico. I'm here to share my testimony about how i was helped to get my wife back. I was a cheat and my wife caught me several times. I tried fixing myself and each time i ended up cheating over and over again. I guess i didn't realise what she meant to me until she had left me alone. I began to find a way to get her back but nothing seems to work out perfectly till i came across an article about Lord Zakuza who helped a lot of people globally to get their relationships back. I made contact with him on his WhatsApp number via +1 740-573-9483 and he assured me that my wife will come back to me within 48 hours with his powerful magics and i paid 410 Euros for the materials needed for the work. Surprisingly, my wife came back home after 2 days saying that she still loves me and i swore never to cheat on her anymore. All thanks to Lord Zakuza. Email him via ( lordzakuza7@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp number via +1 740-573-9483.

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  64. I was cured of CANCER with the used of natural herbs. My name is celina jolly and am from US. I love herbs so much. Most times, injection and drugs are just a waste of time. I was cured 8 months ago, i suffered from CANCER for 3 yrs but with the help of Dr.Sayo herbal medicine, i was cured within few weeks of drinking the herbs he sent to me through courier delivery service. This same doctor also cured my Aunty from FIBROID, as soon as i heard she had FIBROID, i quickly refer her to Dr.Sayo and she was cured too after drinking his herbs.I have referred more than 15 persons to Dr.Sayo and they were all cured from their various illness. Have you taken herbs before?. You have spent so much money on drugs,injections,surgeries etc and yet you have no good result to show for it. Contact Dr. Sayo now, he is a herbalist doctor, i assured you of a cure if you drink his natural herbs. Dr.Sayo have herbs that cures Hiv, Herpes, diabetics, asthma, hepatitis, HBP, STD, cancer, chronic, etc. Contact Dr Sayo through his Email address on: sayoherbalhealer@gmail.com or WHATSAPP/CALL him on+2349012175679 Visit his FB page: https://www.facebook.com/Sayo-Herbal-Healer-100145798345000/    
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  66. I actually was told otherwise, that the herpes can not be treated and that there is no way to make it go away once you have it. But I decided to do my own research and found out it is possible to fight it.. I got a lot of information about it here in forums and online,I got Dr Oje Abacha contact on a group were a man from Cordova was sharing his testimony of how he cured him of herpes so I decided to give him a try I emailed him through oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com . he called me to know if I actually wanted the cured after which the cure was sent to me few days later I was surprised when the same doctor who told me that I was diagnosed of herpes told me that I was completely free from herpes you can reach him through his email oje.herbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com . or through his WhatsApp +2348159734766 if you are diagnosed and also wanna be free from this deadly virus because he is really gonna be of help to you  

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  70. Am glad to share my herpes virus experience with everyone and the marvelous work of Drokohsolutionhome with his roots and herbs. i was diagnosed of genital herpes months ago and it has been hell living with such nasty disease until my sister introduce me to dr okoh whom i met through online. we talked and he sent me a bottle of a herbal medicine which i took for a week and i started vomiting. i went back to my doctor after a month just to confirm my status cos i stop experiencing the sighs and symptoms, all the pain were gone and now i can boldly say there's a cure for herpes simplex virus without misleading anyone. Contact him on Email Drokohsolutionhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp him on +2349070857827

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  73. i already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have be going to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca i contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally free from Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322..
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  83. hello everyone here i am Martin Lawrence  a Hotel manager in Miami  , i want to share a great testimony of how Dr HARRY  herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis size was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing and discouraging, a 39 year old full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame my wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor , she never enjoyed sex, i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until last two months when i saw a testimony of how Dr HARRY  herbal mixture cream have been helping people from the globe,i saw one MR PAUL KEWAH  testifying of how Dr HARRY helped him enlarge his penis size so i decided to give him a try ,i visited his website link  https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    we talked and he gave me steps to follow which i did and to my greatest surprise in less than two weeks of taking the herbal mixture cream my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 10.5 inches long and i was amazed when my wife said i satisfy her so well now all thanks to Dr HARRY  herbal mixture cream,i will forever be grateful To him i also learnt that Dr HARRY also have the herbal cure to problems like
    PENIS ENLARGEMENT
    ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
    DIABETES type 1 and type 2
    HERPES GENITAL WART
    LOW SPERM COUNT
    WEAK ERECTION
    BREAST ENLARGEMENT
    PROSTRATE CANCER
    HIV/AIDS
    SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL
    ALS
    HPV 123
    PILE
    ASTHMA
    HEART FAILURE
    PREMATURE EJACULATION
    HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE
    so if you you are suffering from any of this problems please do not hesitate to contact him now email drharrysolution@gmail.com website  https://drharryherbaltempl.wixsite.com/solutiontemple    you can call him or Whatsapp Dr Harry via whatsapp +2349036417079 thanks      

    ReplyDelete
  84. I already gave up on ever getting cured of HSV2 because i have try many treatment none of them work out for me i have be going to different hospital they always tell me same thing there is no cure for herpes when i came across a post about Dr oyagu, in the net from a lady called Rebecca i contacted him and he reassured me with his herbal medicine which i took according to the way he instructed, that how i was cured. I doubted at first because i have been to a whole lot of reputable doctors, tried a lot of medicines but none was able to cure me. so i decided to listen to him and he commenced treatment, and under two weeks i was totally free from Herpes. i want to say a very big thank you to DR oyagu for what he has done in my life. feel free to leave him a message on email oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com and also WhatsApp him +2348101755322.. He can still be able to help you with this herbs medicine: 1...ALS CURE/DIABETES CURE/EPILESY/HPV CURE/LUPUS/HEPATITIS/CANCER/GOUT

    ReplyDelete
  85. MY BREAKTHROUGH TESTIMONY THAT SAVED MY LIFE AND MARRIAGE Hello everyone i want to testify of how DR ALUYA Herbal mixture cream enlarged my penis size. i never thought i will be happy again in my life because of my small penis situation. I have be struggling with this issue all my life time and i could not find a professional result i wanted, i have went to hospitals, used vaccines, tried several herbs online, penis pumps and all but none rendered me the solution i wanted. I felt like killing myself when my fiance ASHLEY JOE left me after undressing myself in front of her, my size was too embarrassing and shameful imagine a 36 years old man like me having 2.5inches penis size..the world seem to an end to me when she left so one faithful day as i was watching a video on Youtube i saw on the comments of Ryan Peterson testifying of this great herbal healer DR ALUYA helped him enlarge his penis and win lottery lucky number worth $900,000 for him. I was shocked and happy so i quickly emailed him on draluyasolutionhome@gmail.com within 30 mins he got back to me and told me all i need to buy and i did so after 4 days i received his herbal medicine, he gave me instructions on how to use it. As i am speaking to you people now after using the cream for just two weeks my penis size is 10.5 inches long and 8.0 girth, I am so happy and grateful for his work in my life thank you so much Dr ALUYA. I also learnt he has cure for LOW SPERM COUNT, PREMATURE EJACULATION, ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, HIV/AIDS VIRUS, DIABETES 1/2, HERPES DISEASE, CANCER, and lots more you can email him on draluyasolutionhome@gmail.com. Call/whatsapp him directly on +2348137317157 Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  86. EFFECTIVE LOVE SPELL TO GET EX HUSBAND/BOYFRIEND OR EX WIFE/GIRLFRIEND AND CURE HERPES AND INFERTILITY THAT WORKS WITHIN 24 HOURS.

     Contact Dr. Odunga at odungaspelltemple@gmail.com OR Whats App/CALL +2348167159012

    I got my ex husband back to me and also got fertile and gave birth to twin girls after 12 years of marriage.
    When I came online last year, I saw a testimony about Doctor ODUNGA and how he has been helping people with marriage issues and I decided to contact him. We spoke on email at odungaspelltemple@gmail.com and later he gave me his WhatsApp number which is +2348167159012. He assured me he would help me get my ex husband back after 3 years of no contact. Doctor Odunga is the best spell caster I must say. My husband called me after 24 hours of contact. The third day, I received natural herbs for fertility and after using it, I became fertile and conceived. I and my husband reconnected, had sex and I was pregnant. Presently I am happy to say I am the mother of twin girls and this is ALL THANKS TO DOCTOR ODUNGA. I came online to say this If you need help, I believe you are saved with this man.  

    Contact his email at odungaspelltemple@gmail.com

     OR Whats App/Call +2348167159012 and you too will give a testimony too to help others

    ReplyDelete
  87. Greatest thanks to Dr Oyagu for his herbal drugs that he prepared for me and when i start using it in just 2weeks i was completely cured and that ended my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE i am so happy and grateful to Dr Oyagu . after reading about him on a testimony of Jason Cash on a blogger. i knew suddenly Dr Oyagu was the right Doctor to cure my HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 DISEASE. i discuss with Dr Oyagu and he prepared a herbal medicine for me and when it got sent to me in south korean . i used the herbal medicine and 2weeks and i went to check up again. after 15years of suffering from HERPES SIMPLEX 1&2 at last i am smiling once again. Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from your suffering. contact his WhatsApp line: +2348101755322 or his Email:Oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  88. My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Great can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his E-mail: 

    infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com

    WhatsApp +2348118829899

    Blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  89. My husband and I have been married for about 7 yrs now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Great can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great . If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his E-mail: 

    infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com

    WhatsApp +2348118829899

    Blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  90. How I Got My Ex Husband Back..Am so excited to share my testimony of a real spell caster who brought my husband back to me. My husband and I have been married for about 6 years now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone else. He started coming home late from work, he hardly care about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr.Okuns can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and and told him my problems and he told me what to do and i did it and he did a spell for me. 48 hours later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promise never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. I and my family are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr.Okuns Powerful Love Spell that really works. If you have any problem contact him and i guarantee you that he will help you. He will not disappoint you. Email him at: herbal.home247@yahoo.com or whatsapp him on: +2348078467513
    His website is: https://herbalhome247.wixsite.com/mysite

    ReplyDelete
  91. Herbal remedy is the only key to any kind of infection many people thinks there is no cure for infections like STD,STI,Genital Herpes etc. Here ends all your worries Dr Kabaka is a specialist in his filed Dr kabaka uses natural root and herbs to cure any kind of infection. He cured me from Genital herpes. When i first heard about Dr kabaka how he cured Genital herpes i was shock am happy to recommend Dr kabaka to all for his wonderful works am totally free you can also contact him for any kind of solution Contact him on his Email: drkabakasolutionhome@gmail.com
    WhatsApp or call +18622365801 https://www.facebook.com/drkabakacures/

    ReplyDelete
  92. Hello everyone i Am Ben Mark and i am from USA i am here to give my
    testimony about an herbal doctor called Dr,Akioya I was heartbroken because
    i had very small penis,not nice to satisfy a woman, i have been in so many
    relationship, but cut off because of my situation, i have used so many
    product which doctors prescribe for me, but could not offer me the help i
    searched for. i saw some few comments on the internet about this specialist
    called Dr,Akioya and decided to email him on his email i saw on the
    internet,(drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com ) so I decided to give his herbal
    product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some
    comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement, Within
    three weeks of me use it, i began to feel the enlargement, " and now it
    just 4 weeks of using his products my penis is about 8 inches longer, and i
    had to settle thing out with my ex girlfriend , i was surprised when she
    said that she is satisfied with my performance in bed and i now have a
    large penis.thanks to DR Akioya for is herbal product. you can also reach
    him with emsil drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com though is..number WHATASPP him
    today on this number [ +2348105257464 ] you can checkout  is website;
    http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
    https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/

    ReplyDelete
  93. Hey, What's up, I'm Shivani. I'm an application developer living in Noida, INDIA. I am a fan of technology. I'm also interested in programming and web development. You can download my app with a click on the link. Best astrologer
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  94. Are you sicking for help and you want to get your relationship back to track you want to cure your disease kindly contact Dr ekpoma for help via his email drekpoma77temple@gmail.com whatsapp me or call +2348139206346 He told me he can also cure the diseases:(1)HIV AIDS
    {2} Diabetes
    {3} Epilepsy
    {4} Blood Cancer
    {5} HPV
    {6} ALS
    {7} Hepatitis B
    {8} HSV-2 VIRUS
    {9} CANCER
    {10} LOW SPERM COUNT
    {11} STROKE
    {12} ASTHMA
    {13} PREGNANCY PROBLEM
    {14 OBESITY PROBLEM
    {15} GETTING YOUR LOVER OR HUSBAND BACK E.T.C

    ReplyDelete
  95. POWERFUL LOVE SPELLS AND LOST LOVE SPELLS TO BRING BACK LOST LOVER +2348118829899 USA, UK, FRANCE, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, NETHERLANDS, AUSTRIA, BELGIUM, IRELAND.

    I've gotten back with my ex boyfriend with the help of Dr.Great the best spell caster online and i highly recommends Dr.Great to anyone in need of help!.. I want to testify of how i got back my boyfriend after he breakup with me, we have been together for 3 years, recently i found out my boyfriend was having an affair with another Girl, when i confronted him, it led to quarrels and he finally broke up with me, i tried all i could to get him back but all to no avail until i saw a post in a relationship forum about a spell caster who helps people get back their lost love through Love spell, at first i doubted it but decided to give it a try, when i contacted this spell caster via his email, and he told me what to do and i did it, Then he did a Love spell for me. 28 hours later, my boyfriend really called me and told me that he miss me so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day, with lots of love and joy, and he apologized for his mistake, and for the pain he caused me. Then from that day, our relationship was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to DR.GREAT. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the Internet that Dr.Great real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Email him at: infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com, you can also call him or add him on WhatsApp: +2348118829899 check out his  blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com you can also visit my blog at http://donnakelvin150.over-blog.com, THANKS TO DR.GREAT..  

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  97. HERBAL MEDICINE THAT CAN HELP YOU GET RID OF HERPES DISEASE/VIRUS........  
    Do you need a herbal products to cure your Herpes Disease contact Dr. Kham to help and he will surely help you to cure your Herpes Virus in two weeks time ..i has suffered from Herpes Virus for 4 years that almost took my life, but one day I was searching for the possible cure on internet, so luckily i found so many Reviews about Dr. Kham on how he Help people in curing their deadly diseases, and i contact Dr. Kham asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my health..he prepared a powerful Herbal medicine for me and i received The herbal medicine and after using it for 2 weeks my condition has greatly improved, all my symptoms/outbreak was stop, so i went to my doc and was confirmed negative.I am Herpes Virus free! contact this Herbal doctor via his email dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or Whatsapp: +2348159922297 butyou can also visit his website to know more about him at  https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/  or https://drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba   or Visit his FB PAGE: https://web.facebook.com/Dr-Kham-Herbal-Remedies-101547721440460/    

    ReplyDelete
  98. MY BREAKTHROUGH TESTIMONY THAT SAVED MY LIFE AND MARRIAGE Hello everyone i want to testify of how DR ALUYA Herbal mixture cream enlarged my penis size. i never thought i will be happy again in my life because of my small penis situation. I have be struggling with this issue all my life time and i could not find a professional result i wanted, i have went to hospitals, used vaccines, tried several herbs online, penis pumps and all but none rendered me the solution i wanted. I felt like killing myself when my fiance ASHLEY JOE left me after undressing myself in front of her, my size was too embarrassing and shameful imagine a 36 years old man like me having 2.5inches penis size..the world seem to an end to me when she left so one faithful day as i was watching a video on Youtube i saw on the comments of Ryan Peterson testifying of this great herbal healer DR ALUYA helped him enlarge his penis and win lottery lucky number worth $900,000 for him. I was shocked and happy so i quickly emailed him on draluyasolutionhome@gmail.com within 30 mins he got back to me and told me all i need to buy and i did so after 4 days i received his herbal medicine, he gave me instructions on how to use it. As i am speaking to you people now after using the cream for just two weeks my penis size is 10.5 inches long and 8.0 girth, I am so happy and grateful for his work in my life thank you so much Dr ALUYA. I also learnt he has cure for LOW SPERM COUNT, PREMATURE EJACULATION, ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, HIV/AIDS VIRUS, DIABETES 1/2, HERPES DISEASE, CANCER, and lots more you can email him on draluyasolutionhome@gmail.com. Call/whatsapp him directly on +2348137317157 Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  99. Hi viewers online, I'm Alfonso Vázquez from Mexico. I'm here to share my testimony about how i was helped to get my wife back. I was a cheat and my wife caught me several times. I tried fixing myself and each time i ended up cheating over and over again. I guess i didn't realise what she meant to me until she had left me alone. I began to find a way to get her back but nothing seems to work out perfectly till i came across an article about Lord Zakuza who helped a lot of people globally to get their relationships back. I made contact with him on his WhatsApp number via +1 740-573-9483 and he assured me that my wife will come back to me within 48 hours with his powerful magics and i paid 410 Euros for the materials needed for the work. Surprisingly, my wife came back home after 2 days saying that she still loves me and i swore never to cheat on her anymore. All thanks to Lord Zakuza. Email him via ( lordzakuza7@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp number via +1 740-573-9483.

    ReplyDelete
  100. I'm here to testify about the great work Dr Iyoha did for me. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 3 years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came across a testimony of someone on the internet testifying about a Man called Dr Iyoha on how he cured her from Herpes Simplex Virus. And she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Well i never believed it, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man which i take for 3 week,few months later i started experiencing changes all over me as Dr Iyoha assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can contact Dr Iyoha via email driyohasolutiontemple@yahoo.com. You can also call his telephone number on +1 407 337 9869. Thanks once again Dr Iyoha ...

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  102. I am here to share testimony on how Dr AGBON herbal remedy cured me from herpes I have been suffering from herpes for more than 2 year until I met a friend who directed me to Dr AGBON i had doubts at first but now I am a living testimony, after taken the herbs he gave to me l started having some changes within my body and now I am totally
    cured from herpes He also have cure for any kind of diseases and infection cotact him today and save your self, god bless you Dr AGBON , you can reach him on whatsapp +2348050495479 or email him at dragbonherbalmedicne@gmail.com you can visit his Website at https://dragbonherbalmedic.wixsite.com/welcometodoctoragbon

    ReplyDelete
  103. I'm impressed! I must say that the information is Extremely useful and very engaging. Keep writing.Many many thanks and best of luck for your upcoming blogs. wooden swing set san diego

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  104. MY BREAKTHROUGH TESTIMONY THAT SAVED MY LIFE AND MARRIAGE Hello everyone i want to testify of how DR ALUYA Herbal mixture cream enlarged my penis size. i never thought i will be happy again in my life because of my small penis situation. I have be struggling with this issue all my life time and i could not find a professional result i wanted, i have went to hospitals, used vaccines, tried several herbs online, penis pumps and all but none rendered me the solution i wanted. I felt like killing myself when my fiance ASHLEY JOE left me after undressing myself in front of her, my size was too embarrassing and shameful imagine a 36 years old man like me having 2.5inches penis size..the world seem to an end to me when she left so one faithful day as i was watching a video on Youtube i saw on the comments of Ryan Peterson testifying of this great herbal healer DR ALUYA helped him enlarge his penis and win lottery lucky number worth $900,000 for him. I was shocked and happy so i quickly emailed him on draluyasolutionhome@gmail.com within 30 mins he got back to me and told me all i need to buy and i did so after 4 days i received his herbal medicine, he gave me instructions on how to use it. As i am speaking to you people now after using the cream for just two weeks my penis size is 10.5 inches long and 8.0 girth, I am so happy and grateful for his work in my life thank you so much Dr ALUYA. I also learnt he has cure for LOW SPERM COUNT, PREMATURE EJACULATION, ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, HIV/AIDS VIRUS, DIABETES 1/2, HERPES DISEASE, CANCER, and lots more you can email him on draluyasolutionhome@gmail.com. Call/whatsapp him directly on +2348137317157 Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. God bless GREAT Dr Okougbo for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of Herpes since 2015 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied and I needed to get the Herpes out of my blood, I searched about some possible cure for Herpes and I saw a comment about GREAT Dr Okougbo, how he cured Herpes with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later I was cured from Herpes. GREAT Dr Okougbo , truly you are great. Do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through this Email:dr.okougboherbalhome@gmail.com GREAT Dr Okougbo CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASES:-1. HIV/AIDS2. HSV 3 LUPUS4. ALS5. HEPATITIS B6. DIABETES7. HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS DISEASE(HPV)8. ALZHEIMER WhatsApp him on +2347062217261

      Delete
  105. hello everyone here i want to tell the whole world about Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream ...Dr AKIOYA penis enlargement herbal cream in Africa.This is the only Male Penis Enlargement Cream has been used by men around the world like USA,CANADA,AUSTRALIA,BELGIUM,SWEDEN,GERMANY,UK,SINGAPORE,MALAYSIA AND SO MANY MORE supplement that has been PROVEN to-enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY.Full Dr AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream when used will Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches Increase in penis width by 20%helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation.Achieved longer, rock hard erections All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent Full AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream is also:100% Herbal, 100% Safest with no side effect and its of two types I have the one for enlargement and for reduction and your advised to use it by message 100% Satisfaction and Money Back Guarantee. DR. AKIOYA , About my products i have herbal cream and oil 100% Permanent Guaranteed resulting it on your body where you feel you want to reduce or enlarge which will help you to be strong and you get the desirable size you want-within 3-5 days and when you get your desirable size you are advised to stop using it and the results you gain will remain permanent We also do deliveries all over AFRICA, and worldwide so i would like to know first when do you need the product.for more information call or whatsapp Dr.AKIOYA +2348105257464 email drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or visit his website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
    https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ NOTE DR SALATO OF AFRICA ALSO HAVE HERBAL REMEDIES TO TO SICKNESSES OR DISEASES BELOW PENIS ENLARGEMENT,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART,LOW SPERM COUNT,WEAK ERECTION,BREAST ENLARGEMENT,PROSTRATE CANCER,HIV/AIDS SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL, ALS, HPV 123,PILE,ASTHMA,HEART FAILURE,PREMATURE EJACULATION,HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE.

    ReplyDelete
  106. hello everyone here i want to tell the whole world about Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream ...Dr AKIOYA penis enlargement herbal cream in Africa.This is the only Male Penis Enlargement Cream has been used by men around the world like USA,CANADA,AUSTRALIA,BELGIUM,SWEDEN,GERMANY,UK,SINGAPORE,MALAYSIA AND SO MANY MORE supplement that has been PROVEN to-enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY.Full Dr AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream when used will Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches Increase in penis width by 20%helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation.Achieved longer, rock hard erections All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent Full AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream is also:100% Herbal, 100% Safest with no side effect and its of two types I have the one for enlargement and for reduction and your advised to use it by message 100% Satisfaction and Money Back Guarantee. DR. AKIOYA , About my products i have herbal cream and oil 100% Permanent Guaranteed resulting it on your body where you feel you want to reduce or enlarge which will help you to be strong and you get the desirable size you want-within 3-5 days and when you get your desirable size you are advised to stop using it and the results you gain will remain permanent We also do deliveries all over AFRICA, and worldwide so i would like to know first when do you need the product.for more information call or whatsapp Dr.AKIOYA +2348105257464 email drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or visit his website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
    https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ NOTE DR SALATO OF AFRICA ALSO HAVE HERBAL REMEDIES TO TO SICKNESSES OR DISEASES BELOW PENIS ENLARGEMENT,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART,LOW SPERM COUNT,WEAK ERECTION,BREAST ENLARGEMENT,PROSTRATE CANCER,HIV/AIDS SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL, ALS, HPV 123,PILE,ASTHMA,HEART FAILURE,PREMATURE EJACULATION,HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE.

    ReplyDelete
  107. hello everyone here i want to tell the whole world about Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream ...Dr AKIOYA penis enlargement herbal cream in Africa.This is the only Male Penis Enlargement Cream has been used by men around the world like USA,CANADA,AUSTRALIA,BELGIUM,SWEDEN,GERMANY,UK,SINGAPORE,MALAYSIA AND SO MANY MORE supplement that has been PROVEN to-enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY.Full Dr AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream when used will Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches Increase in penis width by 20%helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation.Achieved longer, rock hard erections All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent Full AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream is also:100% Herbal, 100% Safest with no side effect and its of two types I have the one for enlargement and for reduction and your advised to use it by message 100% Satisfaction and Money Back Guarantee. DR. AKIOYA , About my products i have herbal cream and oil 100% Permanent Guaranteed resulting it on your body where you feel you want to reduce or enlarge which will help you to be strong and you get the desirable size you want-within 3-5 days and when you get your desirable size you are advised to stop using it and the results you gain will remain permanent We also do deliveries all over AFRICA, and worldwide so i would like to know first when do you need the product.for more information call or whatsapp Dr.AKIOYA +2348105257464 email drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or visit his website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
    https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ NOTE DR SALATO OF AFRICA ALSO HAVE HERBAL REMEDIES TO TO SICKNESSES OR DISEASES BELOW PENIS ENLARGEMENT,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART,LOW SPERM COUNT,WEAK ERECTION,BREAST ENLARGEMENT,PROSTRATE CANCER,HIV/AIDS SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL, ALS, HPV 123,PILE,ASTHMA,HEART FAILURE,PREMATURE EJACULATION,HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE.

    ReplyDelete
  108. hello everyone here i want to tell the whole world about Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream ...Dr AKIOYA penis enlargement herbal cream in Africa.This is the only Male Penis Enlargement Cream has been used by men around the world like USA,CANADA,AUSTRALIA,BELGIUM,SWEDEN,GERMANY,UK,SINGAPORE,MALAYSIA AND SO MANY MORE supplement that has been PROVEN to-enlarge your penis – safely, quickly, and importantly – PERMANENTLY.Full Dr AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream when used will Increase in penis length by 1-5 inches Increase in penis width by 20%helps in preventing Premature Ejaculation.Achieved longer, rock hard erections All gains in penis length and width are 100% permanent Full AKIOYA Penis Enlargement Cream is also:100% Herbal, 100% Safest with no side effect and its of two types I have the one for enlargement and for reduction and your advised to use it by message 100% Satisfaction and Money Back Guarantee. DR. AKIOYA , About my products i have herbal cream and oil 100% Permanent Guaranteed resulting it on your body where you feel you want to reduce or enlarge which will help you to be strong and you get the desirable size you want-within 3-5 days and when you get your desirable size you are advised to stop using it and the results you gain will remain permanent We also do deliveries all over AFRICA, and worldwide so i would like to know first when do you need the product.for more information call or whatsapp Dr.AKIOYA +2348105257464 email drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com or visit his website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
    https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ NOTE DR SALATO OF AFRICA ALSO HAVE HERBAL REMEDIES TO TO SICKNESSES OR DISEASES BELOW PENIS ENLARGEMENT,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION,DIABETES type 1 and type 2 HERPES GENITAL WART,LOW SPERM COUNT,WEAK ERECTION,BREAST ENLARGEMENT,PROSTRATE CANCER,HIV/AIDS SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL, ALS, HPV 123,PILE,ASTHMA,HEART FAILURE,PREMATURE EJACULATION,HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE.

    ReplyDelete
  109. am here to appreciate Dr oriane for using his herbal medicine to cure my fibroid infection ,since 3 years now i have been living with this virus infection and have be giving me challenges,i was so perplexed because i have be taking several drugs to be cured but all my effort was in vain. one morning i was browsing through the internet  then i saw several testimonies about dr oriane curing people from fibroid infection using his herbal medicine and immediately i contacted dr oriane  on his email droriane6@gmail.com, i told him about my infection and he told me to worry no more that i will be cured,he advise me and gave me instruction and which i rightly followed,so he prepare his herbal medicine for me which i used for 1 month and everything was like a dream to me and my fibroid infection was totally gone.you reach dr oriane for more tips and advise at his email address droriane6@gmail.com or via whats app at +2349031652461  

    ReplyDelete
  110. am here to appreciate Dr oriane for using his herbal medicine to cure my fibroid infection ,since 3 years now i have been living with this virus infection and have be giving me challenges,i was so perplexed because i have be taking several drugs to be cured but all my effort was in vain. one morning i was browsing through the internet  then i saw several testimonies about dr oriane curing people from fibroid infection using his herbal medicine and immediately i contacted dr oriane  on his email droriane6@gmail.com, i told him about my infection and he told me to worry no more that i will be cured,he advise me and gave me instruction and which i rightly followed,so he prepare his herbal medicine for me which i used for 1 month and everything was like a dream to me and my fibroid infection was totally gone.you reach dr oriane for more tips and advise at his email address droriane6@gmail.com or via whats app at +2349031652461  

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  113. God bless GREAT Dr Okougbo for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of Herpes since 2015 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied and I needed to get the Herpes out of my blood, I searched about some possible cure for Herpes and I saw a comment about GREAT Dr Okougbo, how he cured Herpes with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later I was cured from Herpes. GREAT Dr Okougbo , truly you are great. Do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through this Email:dr.okougboherbalhome@gmail.com GREAT Dr Okougbo CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASES:-1. HIV/AIDS2. HSV 3 LUPUS4. ALS5. HEPATITIS B6. DIABETES7. HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS DISEASE(HPV)8. ALZHEIMER WhatsApp him on +2347062217261

    ReplyDelete

  114. I lost my 2 years relationship 4 months ago. My Husband left me with so many pains and since then I have been heart broken and shattered. I have emailed so many sites online looking for a good spell caster till i was directed by one Mrs Wendy Dustin from a forum to email this email address: drkabakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com At first I never believed him, it took him some time to convince me and something occurred to me and I said let me give him a trial. I was very shocked when my Husband called me 5 days after Dr Kabaka were done with the spell casting . My Husband was crawling on his knees for what he has done wrong and i am very happy that we are together today because now he love and care for me and my kids like never before..I will advise you to contact Dr Kabaka because he has done wonders in my life and i believe he can help you out. email: drkabakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com call or whatsapp him +2349015857861.

    ReplyDelete
  115. I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has began to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter. I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Great! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished. Thank you Dr Great for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me!”. Me and my husband are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great. If you have any problem contact Dr Great now and i guarantee you that he will help you contact him through

    infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com

    WhatsApp +2348118829899

    blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  116. I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has began to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter. I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Great! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished. Thank you Dr Great for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me!”. Me and my husband are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great. If you have any problem contact Dr Great now and i guarantee you that he will help you contact him through

    infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com

    WhatsApp +2348118829899

    blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  117. With the love binding spell Dr Kwale did for me I was able to get my wife and my two teenage kids back. I'm so happy today and I just want to share this online so you could get a reunion spell to get your love ones back. Contact Dr.Kwale via his email address kwaletemple@gmail.com or Whats-App Dr Kwale on +2348056141089.

    ReplyDelete
  118. I am here to appreciate Dr Ihibor for using his herbal medicine to cure my Herpes virus. since 3 years now I have been living with this virus and it has been giving me challenges, I was so perplexed cause i have been taking several drugs to be cured but all of my effort was in vain, one morning i was browsing through the internet then i saw several testimonies about Dr. Ihibor curing people from Herpes virus and many other illnesses in the body systems, and immediately i contacted Dr Ihibor on his email: drihiborherbalhome@gmail. com, I told him about my troubles and he told me that i must be cured, he gave me some instructions and which i rightly followed. so he prepared a herbal medicine for me and sent it to me which i used for 2 weeks and everything was like a dream to me and my Herpes virus was totally gone, why don’t you contact him today and be free from your diseases because he is very good and honest Doctor. contact him via email; drihiborherbalhome@gmail. com / his mobile whats-app +2349050141449....One thing i love most about Dr Ihibor is honestly and he is very polite with his patience, so everything he told me was what he did, and his herbal medicine are very affordable to get, Dr Ihibor god will over bless you.

    ReplyDelete
  119. I want to give a big thanks to a great spell caster called dr.oluba brought back my joy, by bringing back my ex lover back to me after many months of breakup and loneliness. With this i am convinced that you are sent to this word to rescue people from heartbreak and also the solution to every relationship problem. for those of you out there who have one relationship problem or the other why not contact dr.oluba on his email: olubasolutiontemple@gmail.com  or better still
    Whats-app or call him on: +234 (903) 97 97566  that is the best place you can solve all your problems.

    ReplyDelete

  120. Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

    ReplyDelete
  121. Am sure among all this spell casters online only doctor Azaka is real because i have try using most of them all they do is to take your money and never help only dr Azaka can relate of helping me with bringing back my man all thanks to you Dr Azaka you can also contact him on what'sapp for help on +1(315)316-1521 or his email address is Azakaspelltemple4@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  122. I want to thank a great spellcaster called Dr.Oluba, who brought me back the joy of bringing my ex-lover back after many months of separation and loneliness. With that I am convinced that you are sent to this word to rescue people from heartbreak and also a solution to all relationship problems. for those who have a relationship problem or another, why not contact Dr.Oluba by his email: olubasolutiontemple@gmail.com or even better
    Whats-app or call: +234 (903) 97 97566 this is the best place for you to solve all your problems.

    ReplyDelete
  123. THEO DID A MAGIC IN MY LIFE, I DON’T ACTUALLY BELIEVE ON SPELL CASTING BEFORE, BUT NOW I BELIEVED THEO SPELL CASTER AND HERBAL DOCTOR WITH MY LIFE. HE ALSO CURE MY SISTER FROM HERPES WITH ROOTS & HERBS SHE DRANK FOR JUST 14 DAYS. IF U DON’T BELIEVE IN SPELL CASTING OR HERBAL TREATMENT. TRY THEO & GET 100% PERMANENT RESULTS: EMAIL: theospellcaster@yahoo.com or drtheoherbalcure@gmail.com Whatsap or Call: +2349030502084. He do unbelievable magic spell, sharpe & face change.
    THEO A FAIT UNE MAGIE DANS MA VIE, JE NE CROIS PAS VRAIMENT AU CASTING DE SORTES AVANT, MAIS MAINTENANT JE CROYAIS THEO SPELL CASTER ET HERBAL DOCTOR AVEC MA VIE. IL A AUSSI GUÉRISÉ MA SŒUR DES HERPES AVEC DES RACINES ET DES HERBES ELLE A BUVÉ PENDANT JUSTE 14 JOURS. SI VOUS NE CROYEZ PAS AU CASTING DE SPELL OU AU TRAITEMENT DES HERBES. ESSAYEZ THEO & OBTENEZ DES RÉSULTATS 100% PERMANENTS: EMAIL: theospellcaster@yahoo.com ou drtheoherbalcure@gmail.com Whatsap ou appelez: +2349030502084. Il fait d'incroyables sorts magiques, sharpe et changement de visage.

    ReplyDelete
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  125. I'm 40 years old female I tested genital herpes (HSV1-2) positive in 2002. I was having bad outbreaks. EXTREMELY PAINFUL. I have try different kinds of drugs and treatment by the medical doctors all to know was avail. Six months ago I was desperately online searching for a helpful remedies for genital herpes (HSV1-2) cure, which i come across some helpful remedies on how Dr OYAGU have help so many people in curing genital herpes (HSV1-2) with the help of herbal treatment because I too believe there is someone somewhere in the world who can cure herpes completely. At of the past 2 months, however, I've been following his herpes protocol Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or +2348101755322 and it stopped all outbreaks completely! To my greatest surprise I was cured completely by following the protocol of his herbal medicine . Don't be discouraged by the medical doctors. There is a cure for HSV with the help of herbs and roots by a herbalist Dr call Dr OYAGU he is so kind and truthful with his herbal treatment, kindly contact him for more information Via oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp DR on +2348101755322 you will be lucky as i am today

    ReplyDelete

  126. I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past four years and had constant pain. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from Herpes Simplex Virus by this by Dr obor and she also gave the email address of this man and advise anyone to contact him for any kind of problem that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr obor telling him about my (Herpes Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Though i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr obor assured me, after some time i went to my doctor for test and it confirmed that i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends if anyone have such problem and need help contact Dr obor on his email: omiawaleherbalhome@gmail.com Add Dr obor on whatsApp +2348105813057

    ReplyDelete

  127. when I found Dr.obor I was in desperate need of bringing my ex lover back. He left me for another woman. It happened so fast and I had no say in the situation at all. He just dumped me after 3 years with no explanation. I contact Dr.obor through his website and He told me me what i need to do before he can help me and i did what he told me to, after i provided what he wanted, he cast a love spell to help us get back together. Shortly after he did his spell, my boyfriend started texting me again and felt horrible for what he just put me through. He said that I was the most important person in his life and he knows that now. We moved in together and he was more open to me than before and then he started spending more time with me than before. Ever since Dr. Paul helped me, my partner is very stable, faithful and closer to me than before. I highly recommends Dr. obor to anyone in need of help. Email: omiawaleherbalhome@gmail.com
    , Call him or add him on whatsapp via: +2348105813057

    ReplyDelete
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  129. HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR.IFADE CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2349060120490 OR HIS EMAIL ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.comThis is my testimony about the good work of Dr,Ifade who helped me…. I’m MELINA JAMES from North Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 2years, i eventually me this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on his email addressifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2349060120490 

    ReplyDelete
  130. HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF DR.IFADE CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2349060120490 OR HIS EMAIL ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.comThis is my testimony about the good work of Dr,Ifade who helped me…. I’m MELINA JAMES from North Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 2years, i eventually me this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please I want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, I advise you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tells is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on his email addressifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2349060120490 

    ReplyDelete
  131. Hello my name is Jenna i want to share my amazing experience with the greatest spell caster Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about him and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back,thank you once again Priest Ade you are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you contact ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com 
    Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com
    WhatsApp +2347059715465  .

    ReplyDelete
  132. Hello my name is Jenna i want to share my amazing experience with the greatest spell caster Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about him and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back,thank you once again Priest Ade you are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you contact ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com 
    Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com
    WhatsApp +2347059715465  .

    ReplyDelete
  133. I have something to share with you!!! There is a great joy in my heart which I want to share with everyone. I had a misunderstanding with my lover several months ago; which led us to break up and he never wanted to hear my voice again. But as time went on, a good friend of mine recommended DR IFADE who could help me with Love Spell to get my man back. At first, I thought the idea of a love spell was strange,but was willing to give it a try because i really love my boyfriend. For the first time I was scared to contact the DR IFADE because I was not sure if what they did was against my religion. But my friend assured me that they only use spells which are safe and have no side effects.I felt a little better and decided to contact DR IFADE on his mail  (ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com) I contacted him through his email and explained everything to him. He said that I shouldn't worry, that my lover will come back to me on his knees begging for forgiveness. I bought an item that he told me to buy for the preparation of the spell and assured me that my lover will come to me within 48 hours in remorse. My greatest joy now is that he actually came back to me and fell on his knees begging for forgiveness. We got back together and our relationship has been better this second time around. I have to give DR IFADE all the credit for helping us get back to a better place than where we began. The new found love that my boyfriend has for me is incredible and I can't wait to see what the future holds for us. Do you have any problem with your loved one? Well worry no more because DR IFADE can provide you with a spell to get him or her back. With the help of a spell just as he helped me. Contact DR IFADE via email: ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com OR you can also reach him via whatsapp on +2349060120490







    I have something to share with you!!! There is a great joy in my heart which I want to share with everyone. I had a misunderstanding with my lover several months ago; which led us to break up and he never wanted to hear my voice again. But as time went on, a good friend of mine recommended DR IFADE who could help me with Love Spell to get my man back. At first, I thought the idea of a love spell was strange,but was willing to give it a try because i really love my boyfriend. For the first time I was scared to contact the DR IFADE because I was not sure if what they did was against my religion. But my friend assured me that they only use spells which are safe and have no side effects.I felt a little better and decided to contact DR IFADE on his mail  (ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com) I contacted him through his email and explained everything to him. He said that I shouldn't worry, that my lover will come back to me on his knees begging for forgiveness. I bought an item that he told me to buy for the preparation of the spell and assured me that my lover will come to me within 48 hours in remorse. My greatest joy now is that he actually came back to me and fell on his knees begging for forgiveness. We got back together and our relationship has been better this second time around. I have to give DR IFADE all the credit for helping us get back to a better place than where we began. The new found love that my boyfriend has for me is incredible and I can't wait to see what the future holds for us. Do you have any problem with your loved one? Well worry no more because DR IFADE can provide you with a spell to get him or her back. With the help of a spell just as he helped me. Contact DR IFADE via email: ifadesolutionspell31@gmail.com OR you can also reach him via whatsapp on +2349060120490

    ReplyDelete
  134. Nice post. I read many things on different blogs everyday.
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    Health and Hospitality Management

    ReplyDelete
  135. I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 year now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to me in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor  Dr Momoh who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Momoh via his email dr.momoh9@gmail.com write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Momoh instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Momoh to get ride of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2347083724098  

    ReplyDelete
  136. All thanks to Dr Okougbo for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of Herpes since 2015 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied and I needed to get the Herpes out of my blood, I searched about some possible cure for Herpes and I saw a comment about Dr Okougbo, how he cured Herpes with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later I was cured from Herpes. Dr , truly you are great. Do you need his help also? Why don't you contact him through this Email:dr.okougboherbalhome@gmail.com Dr Okougbo CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASES:-1. HIV/AIDS2. HSV 3 LUPUS4. ALS5. HEPATITIS B6. DIABETES7. HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS DISEASE(HPV)8. ALZHEIMER WhatsApp him on +2347062217261

    ReplyDelete
  137. I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has began to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter. I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Great! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished. Thank you Dr Great for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me!”. Me and my husband are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great. If you have any problem contact Dr Great now and i guarantee you that he will help you contact him through

    infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com

    WhatsApp +2348118829899

    blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  138. I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has began to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter. I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Great! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished. Thank you Dr Great for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me!”. Me and my husband are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great. If you have any problem contact Dr Great now and i guarantee you that he will help you contact him through

    infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com

    WhatsApp +2348118829899

    blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  139. Testimony By Lizzy Desler. How to get your ex back fast!

    I was hurt and heart broken when a very big problem occurred in my marriage seven months ago, between me and my husband . so terrible that he took the case to court for a divorce. he said that he never wanted to stay with me again,and that he didn't love me anymore. So he packed out of the house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get him back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and he confirmed it that he has made his decision,and he never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my husband .So i explained every thing to him,so he told me that the only way i can get my husband back,is to visit a priest,because it has really worked for him too. So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice. Then he gave me the Email address of the priest whom he visited. Pristbacasim2000@gmail.com. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address he gave to me,and the priest assured me that i will get my husband back the next day. What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me, and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my husband who didn't call me for the past 7 months, gave me a call to inform me that he was coming back. So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a priest. So, i will advice you out there if you have any problem contact Priestbacasim, i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you.. Email him at: Pristbacasim2000@gmail.com or call +2348144258822 / whatssapp.



    ReplyDelete
  140. Testimony By Lizzy Desler. How to get your ex back fast!

    I was hurt and heart broken when a very big problem occurred in my marriage seven months ago, between me and my husband . so terrible that he took the case to court for a divorce. he said that he never wanted to stay with me again,and that he didn't love me anymore. So he packed out of the house and made me and my children passed through severe pain. I tried all my possible means to get him back,after much begging,but all to no avail.and he confirmed it that he has made his decision,and he never wanted to see me again. So on one evening,as i was coming back from work,i met an old friend of mine who asked of my husband .So i explained every thing to him,so he told me that the only way i can get my husband back,is to visit a priest,because it has really worked for him too. So i never believed in spell,but i had no other choice,than to follow his advice. Then he gave me the Email address of the priest whom he visited. Pristbacasim2000@gmail.com. So the next morning,i sent a mail to the address he gave to me,and the priest assured me that i will get my husband back the next day. What an amazing statement!! I never believed,so he spoke with me, and told me everything that i need to do. Then the next morning, So surprisingly, my husband who didn't call me for the past 7 months, gave me a call to inform me that he was coming back. So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and my children. Then from that day,our relationship was now stronger than how it were before,by the help of a priest. So, i will advice you out there if you have any problem contact Priestbacasim, i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you.. Email him at: Pristbacasim2000@gmail.com or call +2348144258822 / whatssapp.



    ReplyDelete
  141. My husband and I have been married for over 10 years. We met when I was 18 and he was 21. We’ve been through a lot emotionally together. There were several HUGE fights and painful situations in our marriage, but we always seemed to come out stronger on the other side. Out of the blue my husband just sprung the divorce talk on me, I was totally depressed until I found Dr.Todd website online and I ordered for a Love spell. You won’t believe my husband called me at the exact time this spell caster finished his spell work in 48hrs. I was totally amazed! He is wonderful and his spells work so fast. His Email: manifestspellcast@ gmail. com manifestspellcast.wordpress.com
    WhatsApp:+1 604 901 9747

    ReplyDelete
  142. Dr. Kham Miracle Herbal Medicine is The Best, It Helps Me to Eradicate My Herpes Virus Just in Two Weeks.......
    Why go to expensive treatment in hospitals whereby Dr Kham Herbal Medicine is here to clean you from Herpes and many more illnesses …  I had Herpes for 9 months they all tell me there was no cure for me I have go to different hospital I always have same news, I was confused because I feel like ending my life but i thank God I was able to locate herbal doctor Kham who help me I found his email on site how people was writing Good about him I never believe he can really cured me until when I get my test done. I am so happy to tell you this herbal doctor Kham has a herbal cure for Herpes and you can take the medicine according to his instructions. You will find out that you will give testimony like me. I took his herbal medicine for just 2 week. I am so happy today that I am really free from this sickness. Here is herbal doctor Kham email dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or Whatsapp: +2348159922297  you can also visit his website to know more about him at  https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/  or https://drkhamcaregiver.wixsite.com/drkhamcaregiverherba   or Visit his FB PAGE: https://web.facebook.com/Dr-Kham-Herbal-Remedies-101547721440460/    ………………………………. you can reach him out now 

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  143. Hello Everyone, just know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for COVID 19 , I have been sick for the past five days with my wife but today i am very happy that i cured the corona virus with herbal medicine of Dr iweagune the great healer, I was browsing the Internet searching for help when i came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr iweagune cure his corona virus, I was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr iweagune brought a smile to my face with his herbal medicine, I am so much happy today that we have some one like this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly contact this great healer on his WhatsApp or you can call him +2348116955999 he can reuther to you your help!

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  144. I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 year now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to me in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor  Dr Momoh who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Momoh via his email dr.momoh9@gmail.com write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Momoh instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Momoh to get ride of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2347083724098  

    ReplyDelete